This provided the basic access elements as well as circuit switched voice. The additional of packet data with GPRS required additional network entities to be added. It was the combination of these two network elements that provided the basis for the 3G UMTS network architecture.
3G UMTS network constituents
The radio access network changed considerably as a completely new radio interface was used based around the use of CDMA. Also the handset name was changed to user equipment indicating a change in its use from just a voice phone to a data set which could have been a phone, PDA or laptop, with many laptops requiring a 3G dongle to plug into a USB port. The core network is then the overall entity that interfaces to external networks including the public phone network and other cellular telecommunications networks.
Network Reference Architecture for Hadoop- Validated and Tested Approach
It forms the final interface with the user. In view of the far greater number of applications and facilities that it can perform, the decision was made to call it a user equipment rather than a mobile. However it is essentially the handset in the broadest terminology , although having access to much higher speed data communications, it can be much more versatile, containing many more applications.
It consists of a variety of different elements including RF circuitry, processing, antenna, battery, etc. The UE can take a variety of forms, although the most common format is still a version of a "mobile phone" although having many data capabilities.
Other broadband dongles are also being widely used. The overall radio access network, i.
In view of the different ways in which data may be carried, the UMTS core network may be split into two different areas:. Some network elements, particularly those that are associated with registration are shared by both domains and operate in the same way that they did with GSM.
Circuit switched elements The circuit switched elements of the UMTS core network architecture include the following network entities:. Packet switched elements The packet switched elements of the 3G UMTS core network architecture include the following network entities:.
The new name was chosen because the considerably greater functionality that the UE could have. It could also be anything between a mobile phone used for talking to a data terminal attached to a computer with no voice capability.
It provides and manages the air interface fort he overall network. One of the major challenges for the RF power amplifier was to reduce the power consumption.
User Equipment, UE
These inherently take more current than non linear amplifiers which can be used for the form of modulation used on GSM. Accordingly to maintain battery life, measures were introduced into many of the designs to ensure the optimum efficiency.
This is considerably more complicated than that used in phones for previous generations. Again this has been optimised to reduce the current consumption as far as possible. With users expecting the same lifetime between charging batteries as experienced on the previous generation phones, this has necessitated the use of new and improved battery technology.
3G UMTS Network Architecture
Now Lithium Ion Li-ion batteries are used. These phones to remain small and relatively light while still retaining or even improving the overall life between charges.
This is a more advanced version of the SIM card used in GSM and other systems, but embodies the same types of information. Other information that the USIM holds includes the preferred language to enable the correct language information to be displayed, especially when roaming, and a list of preferred and prohibited Public Land Mobile Networks PLMN.
The USIM also contains a short message storage area that allows messages to stay with the user even when the phone is changed. Similarly "phone book" numbers and call information of the numbers of incoming and outgoing calls are stored.
This enables much higher network usage as the capacity can be shared and data is carried as packets which are routed according to their destination. MSC and other circuit switched areas. It achieves this by monitoring the flow of user data across the GPRS network. It handles inter-working between the UMTS packet switched network and external packet switched networks, and can be considered as a very sophisticated router.
When a user switches on their UE, it registers with the network and from this it is possible to determine which Node B it communicates with so that incoming calls can be routed appropriately. Even when the UE is not active but switched on it re-registers periodically to ensure that the network HLR is aware of its latest position with their current or last known location on the network.
This number, as mentioned above, is installed in the equipment and is checked by the network during registration. Supplier Directory For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it. Selected Video What is an Oscilloscope - tutorial. Featured articles.