This fact has now been recognised all over the world. Today the relationship between tourism and environment has been receiving a growing level of attention all over the world. The degree of importance of the relationship between tourism and environment is cited in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism during World Tourism Conference held in Manila in October These are resources whose use cannot be left uncontrolled without running the risk of their deterioration, or even destruction.
Sustainable tourism in thailand pdf files
The satisfaction of tourism requirements must not be prejudicial to the social and economic interests of the population in tourist areas, to the fundamental attraction of tourism, historical and cultural sites. All tourism resources are part of the natural heritage of mankind.
National communities and the entire international community must take necessary steps to ensure their preservation. The conservation of historical, cultural and religious sites represents at all times, and notably in time of conflict, one of the fundamental responsibilities of the states.
Similarly, intelligent tourism management can contribute in large measure to the protection and development of the physical environment and cultural heritage of mankind as well as the improvement of the quality of human life. It is, therefore, advisable that tourism development and sound environmental management should be integral concerns of national development policies.
Sustainable tourism, in the spirit of the Earth Summit, covers all forms and destinations, mass tourism and small scale travel.
It should manager all the resources in such as way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. First, the environment has an intrinsic value which outweighs its value as a tourism asset. Its enjoyment by future generations and its long term survival must not be prejudiced by short-term considerations. Second, the relationship between tourism and environment must be managed so that the environment is sustainable in the long term.
Third, tourism and development activities should give proper importance to the nature and character of the place in which they are sited.
Fourth, tourism should be recognised as a positive activity with the potential benefit to the local community. In every tourist spot, there is a carrying capacity for tourists as well as for any other type of use, which will vary with the fragility of the area concerned and the nature of the tourist activity contemplated. For example, an island rain-forest is a fragile environment which could be endangered by excessive numbers of tourists. Enjoyment of such an environment by visitors necessitates a degree of restraint.
But this type of tourism development can result in deterioration of fragile environment and attractive landscapes through over building and excessive number of visitors.
Sites and areas of archaeological interest, historical buildings and monuments, museums and religious places.
How recreational use alter elements of the natural environment? When people come in large numbers, the natural environment is affected directly and indirectly. In many cases, ecosystem processes are accelerated. Erosion provides a good example. Many stream banks are constantly being worn away by the action of running water.
Where canoeists beach their boats at a picnic spot, erosion can be increased greatly, accomplishing in a few years what would have taken decades or centuries. In a case such as the suppression of fire, ecosystem processes, in this case natural disturbance by fire, are slowed down.
This, too, represents a serious impact.
Sustainable Travel & Ecotourism in Thailand
Certain impacts tend to stabilize over time as they approach some limit of maximum change. Well- built trails for tourists are far from being in a natural state, but they deteriorate little over time. Other impacts get progressively worse over time. Trails that ascend steep slopes and lack drainage devices to divert water off the tread will continue to erode until all soil is gone.
Impacts that are not self-limiting are generally more serious than those that are.
Both the type of environment and the behaviour of tourists can influence the severity of resource impacts. Environments differ in their degree of resistance and resilience.
Sustainable Tourism: Impact, Tourism Development and Other Details
Tourists differ in their behaviour and their potential to alter resources. Moreover, the interaction of environmental conditions and behaviour of tourists create consistent patterns of resource impact. Tourists generally interact with environmental durability to influence the degree, type and distribution of resource impacts in wild-land recreation areas.
While the amount of use is obviously related to amount and pattern of impacts, mode of travel and party size. The increasing popularity of recreation in natural settings has combined in a cause-effect relationship. Further, tourism development is a major cause of environmental deterioration as well as an effect on the environment conservation.
Tourism and recreation in the countryside and natural areas damage the vegetation by trampling.
They accelerate the loss of soil and disturb animals. Sports like skating, boating, camping, trekking and riding adversely affect the landscape and the environment. Accidental fires can have devastating effect on landscape. Such fires damage the environment more severely. In tourism, tourists move from their places to the tourist places for a few days.
The objectives of the tourists may be many as they undertake travels to enjoy cultural attributes, scenic beauty, wildlife and marine places. But the uncontrolled tourism may result in the destruction of landforms, fauna and flora.
The tourism sector uses certain natural resources like forests and rivers etc. The opportunities of economic exploitation of these resources may be subordinated to the over-riding concern for tourism On the other hand; economic considerations may have to prevail in the use of certain natural resources like oil.
When oil is found off-shore, the beaches would be required for refineries, pipelines storage facilities. These would completely spoil the environment for tourism in the area.
The direct positive environmental impacts of tourism include the preservation of historic monuments or heritage and sites, the establishment of national parks and wild life sanctuaries. On the contrary, tourism development may have direct negative environmental impacts on the quality of air, water and noise levels.
The environmental consequences of tourist activities are often difficult to isolate from other developments resulting from demographic, technological and agricultural changes. Tourism activity requires inputs from a diverse range of industries including those not directly related to the tourism sector.
But the environmental impact associated with the product processes of those industries should also be considered. For example, in case the development of tourism activity causes the accommodation sector to increase purchases from the building and construction industry, the environmental deterioration resulting from the increased building and construction activity has to be considered.
Recreational activities may also produce detrimental impacts on the human environment.
Such impacts fall in the following ways: The first includes damages to archaeological sites and materials such as cave walls, rock art and carvings and vandalism.
The second type of impact is by trespassing on sites and photographing paintings of special significance. Such impacts may be deliberate or more often occur through ignorance.
The third impact is with the increasing infrastructure due to tourist sites. The effects of tourism on the man-model environment have also received only little attention. Infrastructural changes and development of resort landscapes are among the most visible impacts of tourism. The concentration of tourist facilities in resorts has induced pressure on land use, infrastructure overloading, traffic congestion and the segregation of tourists and residents.
Physical deterioration of both natural and man-made environments can have serious consequences. For instance, hunting and fishing have obvious impacts on the wildlife environment. Further, sand dunes can be damaged and eroded by overuse, camp fires may destroy forests, and ancient monuments may be worn away or disfigured and damaged. Thus, tourism development leads to special ecological problems not encountered in other types of economic activities.
The environmental resources exploited for tourism attract tourists because of their outstanding beauty, recreational possibilities and cultural interest. Mass tourism has brought in its wake certain ecological and environmental pollution problems. To promote sustainable tourism development including non-consumptive and eco-tourism, the International Year of Eco-tourism , the United Nations Year For Cultural Heritage , the World Eco-tourism Summit and its Quebec Declaration, and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, as adopted by the World Tourism Organization have all emphasized to increase the benefits from tourism resources while maintaining the cultural and natural heritages and environmental inequity of the host country.
The sustainable tourism development supports conservation efforts ethically, and maintains the quality of environment. Moreover, the natural link between tourism and environment provides an obvious self-interest for tourism to protect and preserve its environment.
Environment is, in fact, a threat for tourism between the interests and needs of the local community tourists and travel industry. It has been seen that major social benefits accrue to tourists themselves. But tourism also has valuable spillover benefits for tourist receiving countries.
Notable among these is the contribution of tourism to the preservation of historic cities and cultural values. Careful cleaning and beautifying ancient monuments, clearing the areas around the monuments and improving them for tourism purposes are essential so that the environment is not degraded but improved.
The potential of a region for tourism development should be considered as a separate and distinct planning effort, aimed primarily at determining the best location of facilities like hotels, resort facilities and transportation networks. Wildlife environment in which various animals live should be properly preserved with the help of public participation.
Similarly many other tourist areas should be safeguarded against forces which are responsible for their degeneration. The World Tourism Organisation has taken various steps in this regard.
Today the relationship between tourism and the environment has been receiving a growing level of attention from both public and private sectors. Therefore, World Summit on Ecotourism has stressed the need to enhance international cooperation, foreign direct investment, and partnership with both private and public sectors in this reference of concern. The environmental amenities which attract tourists have tended to be taken for granted.
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THAILAND
Preservation of their quality has only recently begun to concern tourism development authorities. For tourism, the quality of the environment is the basis for attracting visitors and needs to be conserved.
Tourism development can become a positive -factor for improving the environment, if certain environmental planning is adopted. Budowski has pointed out the uneasy relationship between tourism and environmental conservation identifying three different relationships: conflict, co-existence, and symbiosis. He has observed that unplanned tourism in areas of conservation significance can often lead to conflicts.
He further points out that there are examples which prove that a change of attitude leading to a symbiotic relationship between tourism and conservation can lead to physical, cultural, ethical and economic benefits to a country. Development of national tourism strategies and master plans which reflect socio-economic as well as environmental concerns should be integrated with national sustainable development strategies.
There is need for the establishment of a supportive legislative framework that establishes standards for tourism development including environmental impact assessment requirements, and incentives for investment. There should be integration of tourism planning with planning for all sectors and development objectives to ensure that the needs of all areas are addressed and that tourism is well integrated with other local economic activities.