- Qualitative research pdf ebook center
- Theory and Methodology
- An Introduction to Qualitative Research Pdf
- When Qualitative Studies Make Sense
- Introduction to Research Design
- Qualities of Qualitative Research: Part I
- The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: A Step-by-Step Assistance
- Research Methods – Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches
- Qualitative Research and Hypermedia
- Free ebook pdf and epub download directory.
Qualitative research pdf ebook center
Many important medical education research questions cry out for a qualitative research approach: How do teacher characteristics affect learning? Why do learners choose particular specialties? How is professionalism influenced by experiences, mentors, or the curriculum? For these why types of questions, qualitative or mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches 5 be more appropriate and helpful. This editorial is the first in a series of two, and it will provide an introduction to qualitative approaches and compare features of quantitative and qualitative research.
Theory and Methodology
The second editorial will review in more detail the approaches for selecting participants, analyzing data, and ensuring rigor and study quality in qualitative research.
The aims of the editorials are to enhance readers' understanding of articles using this approach and to encourage more researchers to explore qualitative approaches.
Good research follows from a reasonable starting point, a theoretical concept or perspective. Quantitative research uses a positivist perspective in which evidence is objectively and systematically obtained to prove a causal model or hypothesis; what works is the focus.
Also, the context in which the observations occur is controlled or assumed to be stable. In contrast, in a qualitative paradigm researchers might interact with the study objects learners to collect observations, which are highly context specific. Qualitative research has often been differentiated from quantitative as hypothesis generating rather than hypothesis testing.
An Introduction to Qualitative Research Pdf
It attempts to explain a phenomenon or relationship. Typically, results from qualitative research have been assumed to apply only to the small groups studied, such that generalizability of the results to other populations is not expected. For this reason, qualitative research is considered to be hypothesis generating, although some experts dispute this limitation. Qualitative studies are helpful to understand why and how; quantitative studies focus on cause and effect, how much, and numeric correlations.
Generally, qualitative research is concerned with cases rather than variables, and understanding differences rather than calculating the mean of responses. A qualitative study is concerned with the point of view of the individual under study.
For example, the changes in duty hours for residents in have generated many quantitative research articles, which have counted and correlated the changes in numbers of procedures, patient safety parameters, resident test results, and resident sleep hours. However, to determine why residents still sleep about the same number of hours since , one could start from a qualitative framework in order to understand residents' decisions regarding sleep.
Similarly, to understand how residents perceive the influence of resident work hour restrictions on aspects of professionalism, a qualitative study would start with the learners rather than by measuring and correlating scores on professionalism assessments.
When Qualitative Studies Make Sense
A variety of ways to collect information are available to researchers, such as observation, field notes, reflexive journals, interviews, focus groups, and analysis of documents and materials; table 2 provides examples of these methods. Interviews and focus groups are usually audiorecorded and transcribed for analysis, whereas observations are recorded in field notes by the observer. Potential Data Sources for Qualitative Research 8.
After data collection, accepted methods are employed to interpret the data. Researchers review the observations and report their impressions in a structured format, with subsequent analysis also standardized. Strategies to ensure rigor in data collection and trustworthiness of the data and data analysis will be discussed in the second editorial in the series. Iterative Team Process to Interpret Data 8. In contrast to quantitative methods, subjective responses are critical findings, both in participant responses and observer reactions.
The unique or outlier response has value in contributing to understanding the experience of others, and thus individual responses are not lost in the aggregation of findings or in the development of research group consensus.
Introduction to Research Design
Because of the sensitive nature of some discussions as well as the relationship between researchers and participants, informed consent is often required. The very reason for doing qualitative research—to discover why and how, particularly for thorny topics—can lead to potential exposure of sensitive opinions, feelings, and personal information.
Thus, consideration of how to protect participants from harm is essential from the very onset of the study. Qualitative researchers need to show that their findings are credible. As with quantitative approaches, a strong research project starts with a basic review of existing knowledge: a solid literature search.
Qualities of Qualitative Research: Part I
Instead, concepts of precision, credibility, and transferability are key aspects of evaluating a qualitative study. Dependability is gained though consistency of data, which is evaluated through transparent research steps and research findings.
One technique often used to enhance trustworthiness and rigor is triangulation, in which multiple data sources eg, observation, interviews, and recordings , multiple analytic methods, or multiple researchers are used to study the question. This appraisal checklist has not been examined systematically. Approaches to ensure rigor and trustworthiness in qualitative research will be addressed in greater detail in Part 2. Commonly Used Terms in Qualitative Research 8. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have strengths and weaknesses; medical education research will benefit from each type of inquiry.
The best approach will depend on the kind of question asked, and the best methods will be those most appropriate to the question. Gail M.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Grad Med Educ.
The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: A Step-by-Step Assistance
Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Gail M. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theory and Methodology Good research follows from a reasonable starting point, a theoretical concept or perspective.
Open in a separate window. When Qualitative Studies Make Sense Qualitative studies are helpful to understand why and how; quantitative studies focus on cause and effect, how much, and numeric correlations. Methods A variety of ways to collect information are available to researchers, such as observation, field notes, reflexive journals, interviews, focus groups, and analysis of documents and materials; table 2 provides examples of these methods.
Quality Assessment Qualitative researchers need to show that their findings are credible. Summary Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have strengths and weaknesses; medical education research will benefit from each type of inquiry.
Footnotes Gail M. References 1. Bordage G. Moving the field forward: going beyond quantitative-qualitive. Acad Med. Lingard L.
Qualitative research in the RIME community: critical reflections and future directions. The discipline and practice of qualitative research. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Maudsley G. Mixing it but not mixed-up: mixed methods research in medical education a critical narrative review Med Teach.
Research Methods – Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches
Flyvbjerg B. Five misunderstandings about case study research. Qual Inq.
Bryman A. The debate about quantitative and qualitative research: a question of method or epistemology.
Qualitative Research and Hypermedia
Brit J Sociol. Wilson HJ. The myth of objectivity: is medicine moving towards a social constructivist medical paradigm.
Fam Pract. Qualitative research methods for medical educators. Acad Pediatr. Golafshani N.
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Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. Qual Rep. Angen MJ. Evaluating interpretive inquiry: reviewing the validity debate and opening the dialogue. Qual Health Res.