A novena from Latin : novem , "nine" is an ancient tradition of devotional praying in Christianity ,   consisting of private or public prayers repeated for nine successive days or weeks.
Individuals may express love and honor by kneeling, burning candles or placing flowers before for the person represented by a statue. The prayers are often derived from devotional prayer books, or consist of the recitation of the rosary a "rosary novena" , or of short prayers through the day. Novena prayers are customarily printed in small booklets, and the novena is often dedicated to a specific angel , saint , a specific Marian title of the Blessed Virgin Mary , or one of the personages of the Holy Trinity.
In the Catholic tradition, much-used novena prayers include doctrinal statements in addition to a personal petition.
The doctrinal part of the prayers are studied by its ecclesiastical staff, like formal translations of Christian scripture, and officially declared to be free of doctrinal errors with nihil obstat and imprimatur.
The word Novena is rooted in the Latin word for nine. The practice of the novena is based in early Christianity, where Masses were held for nine days with devotional prayers to someone who has died. Over time, members of Roman Catholic faith began to associate novena with Christian themes such as the nine months Jesus spent in the womb, the giving up of His spirit at the ninth hour, and the event which occurred in the Upper Room with Twelve Apostles and the Blessed Virgin Mary when they prayed for nine days until the Holy Spirit descended on the Feast of the Pentecost.
In the New Testament , this biblical event is often quoted from Acts of the Apostles , — The Church Fathers also assigned special meaning to the number nine, seeing it as symbolic of imperfect man turning to God in prayer due to its proximity with the number ten, symbolic of perfection and God. The practice of novena grew by the Middle Ages to include pious prayers for nine days before a feast in honor of a saint identified on a liturgical calendar.
After the Reformation and Counter-reformation era, the Catholic Church formally approved novenas, in particular through the papal approvals of a large number of novenas by Pope Pius IX. In the Roman Catholic Church, there are four recognized categories of novenas which belong to more than one of these categories: . By standard liturgical norms, novenas are performed in church, at home, or anywhere where solemn prayers are appropriate, though some indulgenced novenas require church attendance.
Sometimes, a special candle or incense is lit at the beginning of the novena which burns during the nine days of prayer. The first chapter of the General Principles of Sacrosanctum Concilium , 13 is often cited as a guideline regarding the implementations of public novenas.
Within the Roman Catholic tradition, novena prayers typically include a praise of the Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ or saint, acknowledgment of the Christian doctrines, and a personal petition. Other than the petition, the rest of much used prayers used in a public setting is studied by the clergy and then approved to be free from doctrinal and moral errors. The approval is given in the form of an Imprimatur , Nihil Obstat , and Imprimi potest.
These ecclesiastical approval are usually granted by a bishop or any ranking prelate for publication and approval. Novenas have been a widespread practice in Catholic history. A novena is a ritualistic devotional worship where one or more Christian devotees make petitions, implore favors, or obtain graces by honoring the statue of Jesus Christ , Virgin Mary or the saints of the faith who are believed to empower divine intervention. In Christian communities of Philippines and Latin America, novena traditions include devotional rituals in front of an altar, with nine levels where the Holy Cross is placed at the top.
Additionally, the space may have many statues decorated, and these statues typically include those of Virgin Mary, Apostles and saints of regional significance.
The first day, the votive candles are placed on level one, and with each day the candles are raised by one level towards the Holy Cross. Further, each day includes congregational prayers, hymn singing with music, private and public devotionals.
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Some novenas include, sometimes on the last day, community fiesta events over beverages, refreshments or processions. Rosary Novena is linked to religious death rituals. Among the Filipino Catholic Christians, the Rosary Novena has been a prayer practice for nine days starting the day when someone dies, with formal funeral services timed to the ninth day. Various denominations of Christianity in Africa have introduced regional novena practices that offer devotional prayers, clapping, waving, singing and shouting together in front of statues.
However, some practices are unique to Africa. For example, the novena devotionalism in Ghana includes on each of the nine nights, after the loud prayers, the blood-covering of Jesus, where the devotees stain themselves considering it to be symbolism for the blood of Christ.
Among the coastal West African Christian communities, novena is a means of petitioning God through worship and fasting, along with traditional rituals. Their [Catholic clergy] healing sessions are theatric, hysterical, loud and really engaging to the extent that some people fall to the ground and others feel the power of God piercing through their bodies.
Some of the strong willed Catholics have taken up Novena after Novena seeking divine intervention in a sickness or misfortune. Novena practices were introduced into communities by Christian missionaries in their colonial era and postmodern era proselytization efforts in Africa, as well as new world plantation colonies where African slaves were settled such as in Brazil.
Devotional and paraliturgical novenas have been common in Europe as well as European settlers in North America. These have included public worship such as Mass and private praying with religious items such as a rosary and images particularly related to the Virgin Mary. O'Toole — a professor of History specializing in American Catholic history, the period between World War I and mid s were the "heyday of American Catholic devotionalism".
The novena had strong roots in ethnic neighborhoods, and devotional worship had sociopolitical links, offering a sense of communal security through religious symbols in a period of uncertainty and fear.
Méditations sur l'Esprit saint
In Eastern and Central Europe , novena practices continue. For example, novenas among the faithful in the Czech Republic include nine hour prayers dedicated to the Infant Jesus of Prague , where the devotee can plead personal urgent needs before the statue of the Christ Child if he or she wants to, and on May 27 every year, the statue is ceremoniously paraded through the streets of Prague with prayers and songs.
In Catholic Ireland, states Gladys Ganiel — a professor of Religion, devotional practices such as novenas have been popular. The cultural acceptance of devotional worship has been historically high, and those Irish who themselves do not perform novenas, nevertheless respect those who do.
Chapelet à Saint Joseph
Some of their Catholic ritual practices were repressed by the British state during the 18th and 19th centuries, but repression and criticism only increased the resolve of the Irish to persist in their ways of practicing their faith. In North America, annual novenas are observed in some regions such as in Montreal, Canada, where between March 10 and 19 the annual novena ends in a feast of Saint Joseph. Jude and the Virgin Mary.
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These novenas are prayers believed to create a contact between the saint and the devotee, and thereby invoke divine intervention in whatever problem or anxiety is important to the devotee.
The novena has been an important part of Christianity in the Caribbean and Latin America , both among the native Indian communities who converted to Christianity under the colonial Spanish or Portuguese rule, as well as the diverse communities that formed anew from millions of slaves and indentured laborers brought to the Americas from different parts of Africa and Asia.
The devotional prayers are dedicated to statues of Jesus Christ, Madonna and various saints. According to Patrick Taylor and Frederick Case, the attendance to Christian religious services has been low, except after the death of a loved one or a significant socio-political individual, and during the times of difficulty such as epidemics or a drought. Novenas are still a common sight in India, especially in the state of Kerala.
They are practised by Roman Catholics and oriental Catholics e. Novenas remain a popular devotional practice in the Philippines. Some organizations have also begun offering the novena rituals online for devotees.
The Saint Jude novena on Thursdays invokes the apostle's status as the Patron Saint of Lost Causes, and is popular with students taking examinations. The image, novena, and associated devotional practices have a large following. In , over six million Catholic devotees flocked to the Black Nazarene procession in Manila alone.
In 19th century Melanesia , the Christian clergy linked the end of epidemics such as the measles of , and credited the survival of the communities after major disasters to the dedicated and great outburst of prayers to Christian icons, to "fervent novena". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about devotional worship in Christianity.
For the area in Singapore, see Novena, Singapore. For the open-source computer, see Novena computing platform.
Neuvaine en l'honneur de saint Joseph [microforme]
Premier Christian Radio. Retrieved 10 April Novena is an ancient tradition of prayer for nine days between Ascension Day and Pentecost Sunday. Premier is resourcing a Novena to invite the Holy Spirit to bring fresh renewal to the Church and calls on churches across the UK to take part in an ecumenical act of unity and prayer.
Novena for Justice and Peace.
Etoile Notre Dame
US Catholic Conference Publishers. Brown; Khaled Anatolios; Martin Palmer Infobase Publishing. Storey Novenas: Prayers of Intercession and Devotion. Loyola University Press.
New Catholic Encyclopedia: Mos-Pat 2nd ed. O'Toole Cornell University Press. University of Texas Press. African Christianity: Its Public Role. Indiana University Press. Catholic Community of St. Bernard Church. Retrieved 13 April Though the novena is primarily a devotion used by members of the Catholic Church, it is also practiced by some Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran Christians.
The Dublin Review. Burns and Oates.
The New American Bible. Saint Mary's Press. James M.
O'Toole ed. New York: Robert Appleton Company, Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. The Anthropology of Christianity. Duke University Press. International Counseling Case Studies Handbook. Andrew Chesnut