The de Havilland DH. In addition to the type's principal use for ab-initio training, the Second World War saw RAF Tiger Moths operating in other capacities, including maritime surveillance and defensive anti-invasion preparations; some aircraft were even outfitted to function as armed light bombers.
The Tiger Moth remained in service with the RAF until it was succeeded and replaced by the de Havilland Chipmunk during the early s. Many of the military surplus aircraft subsequently entered into civil operation. Many nations have used the Tiger Moth in both military and civil applications, and it remains in widespread use as a recreational aircraft in several countries.
It is still occasionally used as a primary training aircraft, particularly for those pilots wanting to gain experience before moving on to other tailwheel aircraft. Many Tiger Moths are now employed by various companies offering trial lesson experiences. The de Havilland Moth club, founded in , is now an owners' association offering a mutual club and technical support. Among the reasons for which de Havilland came to pursue development of the Tiger Moth was the personal dissatisfaction of Geoffrey de Havilland , the company's owner and founder, who sought to produce a light aircraft superior to two of his previous designs, the de Havilland Humming Bird and de Havilland DH.
The starting point for the Tiger Moth was, in fact, the successful Gypsy Tiger.
This prototype, a low-wing monoplane , was initially a modification of the standard Gypsy Tiger; it later became the first aircraft to be referred to as the Tiger Moth.
Jackson, development of the standard Tiger Moth version from the monoplane prototype had proceeded relatively straightforward after this point. The DH. A single prototype, designated the DH. One of the main changes made from the preceding Moth series was necessitated by a desire to improve access to the front cockpit since the training requirement specified that the front seat occupant had to be able to escape easily, especially when wearing a parachute.
The solution adopted was to shift the upper wing forward but sweep the wings back to maintain the centre of lift. The Tiger Moth quickly became a commercial success, and various models were exported to more than 25 air forces of various nations.
At one point the flow of orders for the Tiger Moth effectively occupied almost the entirety of de Havilland's capacity to manufacture aircraft, and little capacity could be spared to accommodate domestic customers. In late 50 Tiger Moths of a more refined design, sometimes referred to as the Tiger Moth II , were delivered to the RAF; these aircraft saw the adoption of the de Havilland Gipsy Major engine, capable of generating HP, and the use of plywood decking on the rear fuselage in place of traditional fabric covering the stringers.
After the gradual rate of acceleration of Tiger Moth manufacturing had reached the point where production capacity finally became able to exceed the demands from military customers alone.
de Havilland Tiger Moth
Overseas manufacturing of the type commenced in , the first such overseas builder being de Havilland Canada at its facility in Downsview , Toronto , Ontario. In addition the cockpit had a large sliding canopy fitted along with exhaust -based heating; various alternative undercarriage arrangements were also offered.
Additional overseas manufacturing activity also occurred, most of which took place during wartime. It was developed principally to be used by private touring customers as well as for pilot instruction for both military and civil operators.
One distinctive characteristic of the Tiger Moth design is its differential aileron control setup. The ailerons on the lower wing only on a Tiger Moth are operated by an externally mounted circular bellcrank, which lies flush with the lower wing's fabric undersurface covering.
This results in an aileron control system operating with barely any travel down at all on the wing on the outside of the turn, while the aileron on the inside travels a large amount upwards to counteract adverse yaw. From the outset the Tiger Moth proved to be an ideal trainer, simple and cheap to own and maintain, although control movements required a positive and sure hand as there was a slowness to control inputs.
Some instructors preferred these flight characteristics because of the effect of "weeding out" the inept student pilot.
During the pre-war years increasing numbers of Tiger Moths were procured for the RAF and by overseas customers; by nearly 40 flying schools operating the type had been established, nine of which operated civil-registers models as well. From onwards the Tiger Moth was made available to general flying clubs, production having been previously occupied by military customers.
The type was quickly used to replace older aircraft in the civil trainer capacity, such as the older de Havilland Cirrus Moth and Gipsy Moth. In addition nearly all civilian-operated Tiger Moths throughout the Commonwealth were quickly impressed into their respective air forces in order to meet the strenuous wartime demand for trainer aircraft.
The Tiger Moth became the primary trainer throughout the Commonwealth and elsewhere. It was the principal type used in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan where thousands of military pilots got their first taste of flight in this robust little machine. Generally docile and forgiving in the normal flight phases encountered during initial training, when used for aerobatic and formation training the Tiger Moth required definite skill and concentration to perform well — a botched manoeuvre could easily cause the aircraft to stall or spin.
From onwards all military and many civil Tiger Moths were outfitted with anti-spin strakes positioned on the junction between the fuselage and the leading edge of the tailplane, known as Mod ; later on the aileron mass balances were removed for improved spin recovery performance.
In the DH. Use of the word drone , as a generic term for pilotless aircraft, apparently originated from the name and role of the Queen Bee i. A total of were built by de Havilland at Hatfield and a further 70 by Scottish Aviation.
In December , owing to a shortage of maritime patrol aircraft , six flights of Tiger Moths were operated by RAF Coastal Command for surveillance flights over coastal waters, known as "scarecrow patrols".
Dynam Tiger Moth 1270mm (50") Wingspan - PNP
The aircraft operated in pairs and were armed only with a Very pistol. The intention was to force any encroaching U-boat to dive; one aircraft would then remain in the vicinity while the other would search for a naval patrol vessel which could be led back to the spot. A pound In the aftermath of Britain's disastrous campaign in France, in August , three proposals for beach defence systems were put forward. A more radical conversion involved the "paraslasher", a scythe-like blade fitted to a Tiger Moth and intended to cut parachutists' canopies as they descended to earth.
Flight tests proved the idea, but it was not officially adopted.
Micro DH.82 Tiger Moth Biplane RTF
The Tiger Moth was also tested as a dispenser of Paris Green rat poison for use against ground troops, with powder dispensers located under the wings. In the postwar climate, impressed Tiger Moths were restored to their former civil operations and owners. There were also relatively few new light aircraft being manufactured at the time to take its place.
Additionally it was promptly put to use for various new roles including aerial advertising, aerial ambulance, aerobatic performer, crop dusting and glider tug work. In the air racing market, a quantity of Tiger Moths were converted to a single-seat configuration, often temporarily. Several Tiger Moths were converted during the s to a Coupe standard, which involved the installation of a sliding canopy over both crew positions, not unlike the Canadian-built Fleet Finch biplane trainers which had worked beside the Tiger Moth in RCAF service as trainers in Canada during the type's wartime years.
After the development of aerial topdressing in New Zealand, large numbers of ex- Royal New Zealand Air Force Tiger Moths built in that country and in the United Kingdom were converted into agricultural aircraft ; at the time this was a pioneering use for aircraft.
A large number were also used to deploy insecticide in the crop-sprayer role, for which several alternative arrangements, including perforated piping being installed underneath the mainplanes or the placement of rotary atomisers on the lower mainplane, were used.
Royal Navy Tiger Moths utilised as target tugs and "air experience" machines became the last military examples when that service purchased a batch of refurbished ex-civil examples in On takeoff, the wind over the deck allowed the aircraft to fly but it was slower than the carrier, which turned hard to starboard to avoid a possible collision.
VII while two aircraft resembled the Rumpler C.
V to depict these types for the film. The Tiger Moth responds well to control inputs and is fairly easy to fly for a tail-dragger.
Its big "parachute" wings are very forgiving, and it stalls at a speed as slow as 25 knots with power. Its stall and spin characteristics are benign. It has some adverse yaw and therefore requires rudder input during turns.
At the same time techniques such as coordinated flight must be learnt and used effectively, and the aircraft will show up mishandling to an observant instructor or attentive pupil. As training progresses towards more advanced areas, especially aerobatics , the skill required on the part of a Tiger Moth pilot increases.
The aircraft will not, like some training aircraft, "fly its way out of trouble" but will instead stall or spin if mishandled. However the stall and spin remain benign, again showing up deficient piloting without endangering the aircraft or the crew.
These characteristics were invaluable to military operators, who must identify between pilots with the potential to go on to fly fighter aircraft , those more suited to lower-performance machines and those who must be relegated to non-pilot aircrew positions. Because the Tiger Moth has no electrical system, it must be started by hand.
This needs to be done with care to prevent being struck by the propeller, which would result in serious injury.
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Being a tail-dragging biplane, taxiing also requires care. The pilot cannot see directly ahead, so the lower wing can hit obstructions, and it is susceptible to gusts of wind on its inclined, large, upper wing. The takeoff is uneventful, and it has a reasonable rate of climb. However full power should not be maintained for more than a minute to avoid damaging the engine.
The Tiger Moth's biplane design makes it strong, and it is fully aerobatic. However it has ailerons only on its bottom wing, which makes its rate of roll relatively slow for a biplane; and, as stated previously, the ailerons on a Tiger Moth normally operate with a heavy degree of designed-in differential operation mostly deflecting up, hardly at all downwards to avoid adverse yaw problems in normal flight.
It is important to lock the automatic slats leading edge flaps during aerobatic manoeuvres. There are two methods of landing.
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It does not tend to bounce. Unlike most taildraggers, slow speed three-point landings are quite difficult because there is not enough elevator authority to bring the tail down to the correct three-point attitude.
The open cockpit allows pilots to move their heads over the side to see the runway during approach and landing. As the aircraft is a tail dragger, it is essential to land it straight with no sideways movement, to avoid ground loops. One often undocumented feature is that the carburettor de-icing mechanism is activated automatically when the throttle is reduced. This means that when an engine is running poorly due to ice the pilot must reduce power even further and then wait for the ice to melt.
Numerous examples of the Tiger Moth are still flying today an estimated From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other de Havilland Moth aircraft, see de Havilland Moth. For the group of moths, see Arctiidae. For other uses, see Tiger moth disambiguation.
Main article: Thruxton Jackaroo.
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