Born into an illustrious Bengali Muslim family in Midnapore , Suhrawardy was educated in Calcutta and was trained as a barrister in Oxford where he practised law at the Gray's Inn in Great Britain. After Chittaranjan Das's death in , Suhrawardy promoted the Muslim unity on a Muslim League platform, and began advocating for the two-nation theory. After the general elections held in , Suhrawardy pushed for strengthening the Muslim League's political programme and asserted his role as becoming one of the Founding Fathers of Pakistan.
After joining the Bengal government in , Suhrawardy assumed the only Muslim League-led government after the general elections held in , and faced criticism from the press for his alleged role in the massive riots that took place in Calcutta in As the Partition of India loomed in , Suhrawardy championed an alternative to the Partition of Bengal , the idea of an independent united Bengal not federated with either India or Pakistan.
This proposal enjoyed some support from Muhammad Ali Jinnah ,    but ultimately was not adopted. Nonetheless, Suhrawardy worked towards integration of East Bengal into the Federation of Pakistan but partied away with the Muslim League when he joined hands to establish the Awami League in After supporting the vote of no-confidence motion at the National Assembly that removed Prime Minister Muhammad Ali , the three-party coalition government of Muslim League, Awami League, and the Republican Party , appointed Suhrawardy to the office of Prime Minister, promising to address the issue of economic disparities between the Western Pakistan and the Eastern Pakistan , resolving the energy conservation crises and reforming the nation's military.
On the home front, he faced pressure from the business and stock community over his economic policy to distribute the taxation and federal revenues between East Pakistan and West Pakistan, where the controversial issue of national integration had been brought to fruition by the nationalists.
Huseyn Suhrawardy was born on 8 September in Midnapore , Bengal in India into an illustrious Bengali Muslim family known for their wealth, education, and gentry background, who claimed to be the direct descendant and ancestors of the First Caliphate. After his matriculation from the Calcutta Madrassa , Suhrawardy attended St. Xavier's College , where he earned a BSc.
His gentry background allowed him to settle in England comfortably while attending the St. After leaving Oxford, Suhrwardy was called to bar at the Gray's Inn where he was trained as barrister-at-Law in — After his training as a Barrister-at-Law in England, Suhrawardy returned to India where he begin his practice at the Calcutta High Court in —23, building his reputation as a competent lawyer.
In s, he strengthened the political programme of the Muslim League, supporting the concept of Pakistan , and begin mobilising his support in favour of the Pakistan Movement. He was appointed to head the Ministry of Commerce and Labour in under the provincial administration of Premier of Bengal A. Fazlul Huq.
In , Premier K. Nazimuddin eventually appointed him to lead the Ministry of Civil Supply and it was during his tenureship when the famine took place in Bengal in Nazimuddin as "incapable", there were major allegations that levelled on him towards deliberating causing the famine and doing very little to prevent it.
On the other hand, Indian author, Madhushree Mukherjee, laid major responsibility of this famine to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill who wanted the ration for war efforts only and had refrained the U.
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The Indian press , notably the Hindu press , had become very critical of his role and the Bengali Hindus held him directly responsible for the famine. During the general elections held in in India, Suhrawardy campaigned against K. Nazimuddin for the Premiership of Bengal , and secured enough political endorsement from the Muslim League that allowed him to form the provincial government as its Prime Minister — the only Muslim League-led government in India in By —47, the support for the Pakistan Movement among the Indian Muslims had become very popular and it became inevitable for the creation of the nation-state through the partition of India by To prevent the violence, riots, and long-term border disputes , Suhrawardy joined hands with the demands of preventing the second partition of Bengal by endorsing the idea of independent United Bengal , alongside with Sarat Chandra Bose , K.
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Suhrawardy reached a compromise with Bose when he sought to form the coalition government between the Congress Party's Bengal section with the Muslim League 's Bengal Division. The issue of United Bengal was met with favourable views and backing of Muhammad Ali Jinnah who saw it for the benefits for Bengali Muslims. Despite Jinnah's backing, the plan was fiercely opposed by K. Nazimuddin, his brother K. Suhrawardy and other Muslim League leaders reportedly delivered provocative speeches reminding the Bengali Muslims of the historical Islamic victory and urged them to follow the same way on 16 August.
It was in Ramazan that the Battle of Badr, the first open conflict between Islam and Heathenism, was fought and won by Muslims and again it was in Ramazan that 10, Muslims under the Holy Prophet conquered Mecca and established the kingdom of Heaven and the commonwealth of Islam in Arabia.
The Muslim League is fortunate that it is starting its action in this holy month". According to historian Juthika Roy, Jinnah gave a free hand to Suhrawardy to terrorise the Hindus and start a pogrom against Hindus. A senior intelligence operative wrote to a senior British officer based at Fort William after the 'Great Calcutta Killings' after the Calcutta riots revealing Suhrawardy's villainous nature. He wrote, " There is hardly a person in Calcutta who has a good word for Suhrawardy, respectable Muslims included.
For years he has been known as "The king of the goondas" and my own private opinion is that he fully anticipated what was going to happen, and allowed it to work itself up, and probably organised the disturbance with his goonda gangs as this type of individual has to receive compensation every now and again. Eventually, the United Bengal plan eventually failed which had earlier been facing the opposition of the Muslim League led by K.
Nazimuddin was elected for the Chief Minister of East Bengal. After Jinnah's death and K. Nazimuddin becoming the Governor-General in , Suhrawardy was forced out from the Muslim League but the latter co-founded the Awami Muslim League , alongside with the conservative cleric, Maulana Bhasani and others in Nazimuddin , and forged an alliance with the Communist Party and other left-oriented parties, which was known as the United Front. After the dismissal of Prime Minister K. During the legislative elections in held in in East , Suhrawardy led the United Front against the Muslim League led by Nurul Amin , which saw the landslide victory of the United Front.
During this time, he also acted as Leader of the Opposition , alongside with the I. Chudrigar of the Pakistan Muslim League. On 12 September , Chief Justice M. Initially promising to review the policy of One Unit status to the nationalists at the National Assembly , Prime Minister Suhrwardy backed out to overturn this scheme.
Suhrawardy and Jinnah
Nonetheless, there were no concrete steps taken by Suhrwardy government to address this issue and it was not until the Yahya administration when it was repealed in In , Prime Minister Suhrwardy approved to request the three-year extension of army commander General Ayub Khan while approving the appointment of V-Adm. HMS Choudhry as the first native naval commander — both men served to command their services until Nazir Ahmad , a physicist. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui , presented the plan to acquire the NRX reactor from Canada , Suhrawardy reportedly vetoed instead releasing funds for the U.
Suhrawardy relied heavily upon U.
President to ship wheat flour and rice on a regular basis to Pakistan. The central government led by Suhrawardy focused on the implementation of the planned economy.
Eventually leaders of the stock exchange met with President Mirza to address their concerns and issues. Prime Minister Suhrwardy directed the foreign policy towards aligning with the United States against the Soviet Union , and was seen as a pro-American political figure in the country.
He is considered to be one the pioneers of Pakistan's foreign policy aimed, directed, and set towards excessively supporting the United States and their cause , a policy that was pursued by the successive administrations. The U-2 incident severely compromised the national security of Pakistan when Soviet Union eventually discovered the base through interrogating its pilot.
After his visit to the United States, Prime Minister Suhrawardy was invited by the Soviet Union for a state visit but Suhrawardy complained of Soviet Union's attitude towards supporting India over the issue of Kashmir.
Ahmed Ali , who had established the Pakistan embassy in Beijing and formed Pak-China friendship and strengthened the official diplomatic friendship between Pakistan and China. In —57, Prime Minister Suhrawardy accused India of supporting insurgency in different parts of the country, and levelled accusations against his counterpart, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of undoing the partition of India.
Suhrawardy and Jinnah
His economic policy and distribution of taxation revenues between West and East invited massive labour strikes as well as opposition from the stock exchange community and the private sector in Suhrawardy had strongly advocated for Pakistan's membership in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization , which was aimed towards containing communism ; he was in direct conflict with Bhasani on this issue.
To the dismay of his party, Suhrawardy became closer to President Iskander Mirza on many issues. His alignment with the United States at the expense of the Soviet Union caused Prime Minister Suhrawardy to eventually lose control over the presidency of the party to the junior leadership under Abdur Rashid Tarkabagish. In , he retired from politics, departing for Beirut.
In , Suhrawardy was arranged to marry, Begum Niaz Fatima d. After his passing in , the Suhrawardy family remained active in national politics , and his granddaughter Shahida Jamil subsequently is a politician with the PML N and briefly served as the Law Minister in and In , Suhrawardy married Vera Alexandrovna Tiscenko , a Russian theatre actress and dancer whom he knew through his older brother's work in Russia.
Following the divorce, Vera moved to the United States with their only son, Rashid Suhrawardy, known as Robert Ashby , who is a British actor living in London and briefly portrayed Jawaharlal Nehru in film Jinnah in He had been a chronic heart patient and died in Lebanon in due to a cardiac arrest.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Serving with I. Main articles: Bengal famine and Hindu-Muslim riots. See also: United Bengal. See also: Direct Action Day and Noakhali riots.
Main article: Aid to Pakistan. Cambridge, UK: Routledge. Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 29 January Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, — Cambridge University Press. Hindu culpability was never acknowledged. The Hindu press laid the blame for the violence upon the Suhrawardy Government and the Muslim League.
At one point, late in the s, he was even prepared to concede an independent Bengal as long as the Muslims of that area had freedom and got Calcutta. A History of India.
Interview with Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy of Pakistan
Psychology Press. Political Inheritance of Pakistan. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh Second ed. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 December Suhrawardy Becomes Prime Minister". Suhrawardy government". July