Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water.
In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times.
Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication. Pliny the Elder reported that fats such as lard were used to lubricate the axles of carts.
Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food — a role that they share with some animal fats , including butter , ghee , lard , and schmaltz. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:.
Oils for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils — soybean , rapeseed , canola , sunflower , safflower , peanut , cottonseed , etc. Tropical oils, such as coconut , palm , and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high-temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash points.
Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete " hydrogenation " into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves " sparging " the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst , typically a powdered nickel compound. As each carbon-carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation ; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated.
An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity oxidation or to change its physical characteristics.
As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase. The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory.
Composition of fats and oils pdf to word
Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle. Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease ,  among other increased health risks.
In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used. Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products. Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils , and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products.
Dammar oil a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin , for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats. Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points.
However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen , and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate. Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification.
Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants. One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils are susceptible to becoming rancid.
Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil , are thus preferred for industrial uses. Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor to Nylon Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods.
AAFCO  defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes. Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel , which can be used like conventional diesel.
Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil , also known as pure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity.
The use of vegetable oils as alternative energy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing. The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds. This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent.
The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered. Oils can be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing. Oilseed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the ghani is primarily used in India. The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive.
The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils.
Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents. Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid. Hardening vegetable oil is done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen.
This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom.
Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point , and makes the oil more stable. Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated.
During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid.
This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable".
Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids, are increasingly thought to be unhealthy. The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble. The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil.
Deodorization is key to the manufacture of vegetable oils. Nearly all soybean, corn, and canola oils found on supermarket shelves go through a deodorization stage that removes trace amounts of odors and flavors, and lightens the color of the oil.
People can breathe in vegetable oil mist in the workplace. The U. Typical productivity of some oil crops, measured in tons t of oil produced per hectare ha of land per year yr. Oil palm is by far the highest yielding crop, capable of producing about 4 tons of palm oil per hectare per year.
The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume.
Esters 3. Structure of Fats and Oils.
All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel. Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use.
The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel originally designed his engine to run on peanut oil. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia.
Poppy seed, rapeseed, linseed, almond oil, sesame seed, safflower, and cottonseed were used since at least the bronze age throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds. The extracted oil was refined and partially hydrogenated to give a solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard, and can it under nitrogen gas. Soybeans were an exciting new crop from China in the s. Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates.
Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans. In the mids, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar.
Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" from "Canada Oil low acid". Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January ,  and U. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates.
Canola is very thin unlike corn oil and flavorless unlike olive oil , so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil. A large quantity of used vegetable oil is produced and recycled, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants. Recycled oil has numerous uses, including use as a direct fuel , as well as in the production of biodiesel , soap, animal feed , pet food, detergent, and cosmetics.
It is traded as the commodity, yellow grease. Since , an increasing number of European Union countries have prohibited the inclusion of recycled vegetable oil from catering in animal feed. Used cooking oils from food manufacturing, however, as well as fresh or unused cooking oil, continue to be used in animal feed.
Due to their susceptibility to oxidation from the exposure to oxygen, heat and light, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, such as peroxides and hydroperoxides , plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a limited shelf-life.
In Canada, palm oil is one of five vegetable oils, along with palm kernel oil, coconut oil, peanut oil, and cocoa butter, which must be specifically named in the list of ingredients for a food product. From December , all food products produced in the European Union were legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Vegetable oil disambiguation.
Olive oil. See also: Cooking oil. Main article: Vegetable oil fuel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of vegetable oils. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.