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Water quality index WQI is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues.
Canadian water quality index pdf files
However, WQI depicts the composite influence of different water quality parameters and communicates water quality information to the public and legislative decision makers.
In spite of absence of a globally accepted composite index of water quality, some countries have used and are using aggregated water quality data in the development of water quality indices.
Attempts have been made to review the WQI criteria for the appropriateness of drinking water sources. Keywords: ground water, surface, water quality, water quality index. DOI: Water, a prime natural resource and precious national asset, forms the chief constituent of ecosystem. Water sources may be mainly in the form of rivers, lakes, glaciers, rain water, ground water etc.
Besides the need of water for drinking, water resources play a vital role in various sectors of economy such as agriculture, livestock production, forestry, industrial activities, hydropower generation, fisheries and other creative activities.
The availability and quality of water either surface or ground, have been deteriorated due to some important factors like increasing population, industrialization, urbanization etc. Water quality of any specific area or specific source can be assessed using physical, chemical and biological parameters.
The values of these parameters are harmful for human health if they occurred more than defined limits [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Therefore, the suitability of water sources for human consumption has been described in terms of Water quality index WQI , which is one of the most effective ways to describe the quality of water.
WQI utilizes the water quality data and helps in the modification of the policies, which are formulated by various environmental monitoring agencies. It has been realized that the use of individual water quality variable in order to describe the water quality for common public is not easily understandable [ Int. Scientific Res, 54 2. That's why, WQI has the capability to reduce the bulk of the information into a single value to express the data in a simplified and logical form [ 7 ]. It takes information from a number of sources and combines them to develop an overall status of a water system  [ 8 ].
They increase the understanding ability of highlighted water quality issues by the policy makers as well as for the general public as users of the water resources [ 26 ]. The present study reviews some of the important water quality indices used in water quality assessment and provides their mathematical structure, set of parameters and calculations along with their merits and demerits, which are being used worldwide. Initially, WQI was developed by Horton [ 27 ] in United States by selecting 10 most commonly used water quality variables like dissolved oxygen DO , pH, coliforms, specific conductance, alkalinity and chloride etc.
The assigned weight reflected significance of a parameter for a particular use and has considerable impact on the index. Recently, many modifications have been considered for WQI concept through various scientists and experts [ Asian Environ. A general WQI approach [ 31 ] is based on the most common factors, which are described in the following three steps:.
Parameter Selection: This is carried out by judgment of professional experts, agencies or government institutions that is determined in the legislative area.
The selection of the variables from the 5 classes namely oxygen level, eutrophication, health aspects, physical characteristics and dissolved substances, which have the considerable impact on water quality, are recommended [ 32 ]. Sub-Indices Aggregation with Mathematical Expression: This is frequently utilized through arithmetic or geometric averages. However, a huge number of water quality indices viz.
These WQI have been applied for evaluation of water quality in a particular area [ 33 , Environ. Moreover, these indices are often based on the varying number and types of water quality parameters as compared with respective standards of a particular region.
Water quality indices are accredited to demonstrate annual cycles, spatial and temporal variations in water quality and trends in water quality even at low concentrations in an efficient and timely manner. On the basis of reviewed literature, available indices have many variations and limitations based on number of water quality variables used and not accepted worldwide [ 35 ].
Hence, it needs worldwide acceptability with varying number of water quality variables. Various WQI determination methods have been described herein. A usual water quality index method was developed by paying great rigor in selecting parameters, developing a common scale and assigning weights. The proposed method for comparing the water quality of various water sources is based upon nine water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphates, nitrates and total solids [ Water Sewage Works , Toxic Radioact.
Waste Manage. The water quality data are recorded and transferred to a weighting curve chart, where a numerical value of Qi is obtained.
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PowerPoint Slide. Larger image png format Tables index Veiw figure View current table in a new window. CCME WQI provides a consistent method, which was formulated by Canadian jurisdictions to convey the water quality information for both management and the public.
Moreover, a committee established under the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment CCME has developed WQI, which can be applied by many water agencies in various countries with slight modification [ 37 , 38 , Environ. This method has been developed to evaluate surface water for protection of aquatic life in accordance to specific guidelines.
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The parameters related with various measurements may vary from one station to the other and sampling protocol requires atleast four parameters, sampled atleast four times [ Wat. Therefore, five categories have been suggested to categorize the water qualities which are summarized in Table 1.
The parameters covered in this method are temperature, dissolved oxygen DO , biochemical oxygen demand BOD , pH, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total solids and fecal coliform [ J.
Water Pollu. It expresses water quality status and trends for the legislatively mandated water quality status assessment. The index is free from the arbitration in weighting the parameters and employs the concept of harmonic averaging. The mathematical expression of this WQI method is given by.
Furthermore, the rating scale of this OWQI has also been categorized in various classes, which are given under Table 1 [ 43 ]. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method classified the water quality according to the degree of purity by using the most commonly measured water quality variables.
The method has been widely used by the various scientists [ Report Opinion, 2 9.
The unit weight Wi for each water quality parameter is calculated by using the following formula:. A comparison of all these water quality indices is also performed under the study considering their merits and demerits. Table 3 explains about the merits and demerits of WQI methods. After the study of different water quality indices, it may be inferred that the aim of WQI is to give a single value to water quality of a source alongwith reducing higher number of parameters into a simple expression resulting into easy interpretation of water quality monitoring data.
Moreover, this is an effort to review the important indices used in water quality vulnerability assessment and also provides information about indices composition and mathematical forms. These indices utilize various physico-chemical and biological parameters and have been resulted as an outcome of efforts and research and development carried out by different government agencies and experts in this area globally. In spite of all the efforts and different discussed indices being used globally, no index has so far been universally accepted and search for more useful and universal water quality index is still going on, so that water agencies, users and water managers in different countries may use and adopted it with little modifications.
The authors are thankful to USERC administration to provide necessary infrastructure to complete this work. Submission Browse by Subjects. Introduction 2. Water Quality Index 3. Conclusions Acknowledgement References. Abstract Water quality index WQI is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. All Rights Reserved.
Tyagi, Shweta, et al. Tyagi, S. American Journal of Water Resources , 1 3 , Introduction Water, a prime natural resource and precious national asset, forms the chief constituent of ecosystem. Water Quality Index Initially, WQI was developed by Horton [ 27 ] in United States by selecting 10 most commonly used water quality variables like dissolved oxygen DO , pH, coliforms, specific conductance, alkalinity and chloride etc.
Canadian Water Quality Index 1.0 Calculator
A general WQI approach [ 31 ] is based on the most common factors, which are described in the following three steps: 1. Download as PowerPoint Slide Larger image png format. Veiw figure View current table in a new window View next table. Table 2. Veiw figure View current table in a new window View previous table View next table.
Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index
Table 3. Veiw figure View current table in a new window View previous table. Email this article Alert me when cited Alert me if commented. Follow Us. Import into BibTeX. Import into EndNote. Import into RefMan.
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Import into RefWorks. In article. Bureau of Indian Standards, Specification for drinking water. IS: , New Delhi, India, Bharti, N. Akoteyon, I.
Babaei Semiromi, F. Karbassi, A. Autumn Das, K. Jena, V.
Water Quality Standards - Calculation of Irrigation Parameters in Excel with simple method
Saberi Nasr, A. Abdulwahid, S. Srinivas, J.