Balance Of Payments And Exchange Rates Pdf To Word

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

The monetary approach to the balance of payments is associated with the names of R.

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

Mundell and H. The other writers who have made contribution to it include R.

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Dornbusch, M. Mussa, D. Kemp and J.

Monetary Approach to Balance of Payments Adjustment | Economics

The basic premise of the approach is the recognition that the BOP disequilibrium is fundamentally a monetary phenomenon. It attempts to explain the BOP deficits or surpluses through demand for and supply of money. The monetary approach, given the above assumptions, holds that the excess of money supply over money demand reflects the balance of payments deficit.

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The excessive money holdings are utilised by the people in the purchase of foreign goods and securities. The excess supply of money may be offset by the central bank under a system of fixed exchange rates through the sale of foreign exchange reserves and the purchase of domestic currency. As the excess supply conditions in the money market are removed, the balance of payments equilibrium gets restored.

On the opposite, if the supply of money falls short of the demand for money, the country will have a balance of payments surplus. In such a situation, people try to acquire the domestic- currency through the sale of goods and securities to the foreigners. For meeting the shortage of domestic currency, the central bank will buy excess foreign currency in addition to the purchase of domestic securities.

The demand for money M D is a stable and direct function of income and inverse function of the rate of interest.

The monetary equilibrium is determined by the equality between the demand for money and the supply of money. From this relation, it follows that the excess of money demand over the domestic monetary base is offset by an inflow of reserves from abroad or international monetary base in the event of a BOP surplus.

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On the opposite, if there is a BOP deficit reflected by the excess of money supply over money demand, the adjustment can be possible through an outflow of foreign reserves. The monetary approach also explains that the BOP disequilibria, under a flexible exchange system, are corrected immediately through automatic changes in exchange rate without any international flow of money or reserves.

This leads to a rise in domestic prices and also the demand for money. As a consequence, there is an absorption of the excess supply of money and the BOP deficit gets adjusted.

It leads to a fall in domestic prices.

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

As a consequence, the excess money demand and the BOP surplus get offset. The monetary approach to the BOP situation has an important policy implications.

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

It suggests that the policies like devaluation can have effectiveness in the short period only if the monetary authority does not increase the supply of money to match exactly the increase in the demand for money resulting from devaluation or other adjustment policies. The monetary approach to BOP adjustment has been subjected to criticism on the following grounds:.

This approach, assumes the demand function of money to be stable. Such an assumption may be valid in the long run. But there is a strong opinion among the economists that money demand function is unstable in the short period. In this approach, an assumption has been taken that there is the existence of full employment.

How Does the Balance of Payments Impact Currency Exchange Rates?

This assumption does not hold valid in actual life. The monetary approach to BOP adjustment rests upon the assumption of single price for identical products.

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

Even this assumption is not true. When the productive factors are diverted to sectors producing non-traded commodities, the excess demand for non-traded goods can spill over into the reduced supply of traded goods.

Balance of payments and exchange rates pdf to word

That can cause an increase in imports. Consequently, the principle of single price for all traded goods stands violated. In this approach, the demand function for money is related only to income and rate of interest.

In fact, the money demand function is related to several other variable connected with both domestic economy and foreign trade and exchange. The critics have not accepted the validity of the assumption of impossibility of sterilisation of currency under a system of fixed exchange rates.

They have referred to circumstances in which the sterilisation of currency can become possible. In their opinion, the currency flow can become sterile, if the private sector is willing to adjust the composition of its wealth portfolio with regard to the relative importance of bonds and money balances.

Balance of payments: Current account - Foreign exchange and trade - Macroeconomics - Khan Academy

Another situation in which sterilisation of currency flow can be possible occurs if the government is prepared to have a higher budget deficits whenever the country has to deal with the problem of BOP deficit. The principle of single price for identical products is vitiated by the market imperfections. The price differentials between different trading countries do exist on account of market imperfections and various restrictions or regulations enforced by the governments on the domestic and international trade.

The monetary approach is conceptually suited to long term balance of payments adjustment.

The prolonged monetary lags between the recognition of the problem of BOP deficit and ultimate BOP adjustment have been generally neglected in this approach. In this approach, the emphasis is essentially upon the variation in credit flows.

The BOP equilibrium can be achieved also through the alternative economic policies of expenditure-switching which can work through domestic real and money flows as well as the government budgetary variations. Despite its weaknesses, the monetary approach is superior to the traditional price-specie flow theory of D. That theory had stressed upon the BOP adjustments through the gold flows and consequent effects upon prices, international trade and payments.

The modern monetary approach, in contrast, suggests the correction of BOP deficits or surpluses through changes in domestic and international monetary base and their effects upon production, income and expenditure.