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Recent research suggests that graphene holds great potential in the biomedical field because of its extraordinary properties. Whereas initial attempts focused on the use of suspended graphene for drug delivery and bioimaging, more recent work has demonstrated its advantages for preparing substrates for tissue engineering and biomedical devices and products.
Cells are known to interact with and respond to nanoparticles differently when presented in the form of a substrate than in the form of a suspension.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces: American Chemical Society Publications
In tissue engineering, a stable and supportive substrate or scaffold is needed to provide mechanical support, chemical stimuli, and biological signals to cells.
This review compiles recent advances of the impact of both graphene and graphene-derived particles to prepare supporting substrates for tissue regeneration and devices as well as the associated cell response to multifunctional graphene substrates. We discuss the interaction of cells with pristine graphene, graphene oxide, functionalized graphene, and hybrid graphene particles in the form of coatings and composites.
Such materials show excellent biological outcomes in vitro, in particular, for orthopedic and neural tissue engineering applications. Preliminary evaluation of these graphene-based materials in vivo reinforces their promise for tissue regeneration and implants. Although the reported findings of studies on graphene-based substrates are promising, several questions and concerns associated with their in vivo use persist. Possible strategies to examine these issues are presented.
Using the nickel foam as template and chemically etching method, the GPN can be created in the PDMS-nickel foam coated with graphene, which can achieve both pressure and strain sensing properties. Because of the pores in the GPN, the composite as pressure and strain sensor exhibit wide pressure sensing range and highest sensitivity among the graphene foam-based sensors, respectively.
In addition, it shows potential applications in monitoring or even recognize the walking states, finger bending degree, and wrist blood pressure. As a result, a maximum power conversion efficiency of Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials that combine the dynamic nature self-assembled organic nanostructures, unique photophysical properties of inorganic materials, and molecular recognition capability of biopolymers can provide sophisticated nanoarchitectures with unprecedented functions.
In this report, infrared IR -responsive self-assembled peptide-carbon nanotube CNT hybrids that enable the spatiotemporal control of bioactive ligand multivalency and subsequent human neural stem cell hNSC differentiation are reported.
The switching between the ligand presented and hidden states was controlled via IR-induced photothermal heating of CNTs, followed by the shrinkage of the thermoresponsive dendrimers that exhibited lower critical solution temperature LCST behavior.
The control of the ligand spacing via molecular coassembly and IR-triggered ligand presentation promoted the sequential events of integrin receptor clustering and the differentiation of hNSCs into electrophysiologically functional neurons.
Therefore, the combination of our nanohybrid with biomaterial scaffolds may be able to further improve effectiveness, durability, and functionality of the nanohybrid systems for spatiotemporal control of stem cell differentiation. Moreover, these responsive hybrids with remote-controllable functions can be developed as therapeutics for the treatment of neuronal disorders and as materials for the smart control of cell function.
Fe-based materials are of interest for use in biodegradable implants. However, their corrosion rate in the biological environment may be too slow for the targeted applications. In this work, sandblasting is applied as a successful surface treatment for increasing the degradation rate of pure iron in simulated body fluid.
Two sandblasting surfaces with different roughness present various surface morphologies but similar degradation products. Electrochemistry tests revealed that sandblasted samples have a higher corrosion rate compared to that of bare iron, and even more noteworthy, the degradation rate of sandblasted samples remains significantly higher during long-term immersion tests.
On the basis of our experimental results, the most plausible reasons behind the fast degradation rate are the special properties of sandblasted surfaces, including the change of surface composition for the early stage , high roughness occluded surface sites , and high density of dislocations.
Furthermore, the cytocompatibility was studied on sandblasting surfaces using human osteoblast-like cells MG by indirect and direct contact methods. Results revealed that sandblasting treatment brings no adverse effect to the growth of MG cells. This work demonstrates the significant potential of sandblasting for controlling the degradation behavior of iron-based materials for biomedical applications.
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Because of their high sensitivity, cost-efficiency, and great potential as point-of-care biodiagnostic devices, plasmonic biosensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance have gained immense attention. However, most plasmonic biosensors and conventional bioassays rely on natural antibodies, which are susceptible to elevated temperatures and nonaqueous media.
Herein, we introduce a facile approach to preserve the antibody activity on a biosensor surface even at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, a simple aqueous rinsing process restores the biofunctionality of the biosensor.
This energy-efficient and environmentally friendly method represents a novel approach to eliminate the cold chain and temperature-controlled packing of diagnostic reagents and materials, thereby extending the capability of antibody-based biosensors to different resource-limited circumstances such as developing countries, an ambulance, an intensive care unit emergency room, and battlefield. G IIKK 3I-NH2 has been recently shown to be highly effective at killing bacteria and inhibiting cancer cell growth while remaining benign to normal host mammalian cells.
All substitutions caused the reduction of peptide hydrophobicity, while N-terminal substitutions had a less noticeable effect on the surface activity and helix-forming ability than C-terminal substitutions. N-terminal variants held potent anticancer activity but exhibited reduced hemolytic activity; these actions were related to the maintenance of their moderate surface pressures 12—16 mN m—1 , while their hydrophobicity was reduced.
In spite of its very low helical content, the C-terminal variant G IIKK 3V-NH2 still displayed potent anticancer activity while retaining high hemolytic activity as well, again correlating well with its relatively high surface pressure and hydrophobicity. These results together indicated that surface activity governs the anticancer activity of the peptides, but hydrophobicity influences their hemolytic activity.
In contrast, helicity appears to be poorly correlated to their bioactivity. This work has demonstrated that N-terminal modifications provide a useful strategy to optimize the anticancer activity of helical anticancer peptides ACPs against its potential toxicity to mammalian host cells.
Breast cancer is the primary reason for cancer-related death in women worldwide and the development of new formulations to treat breast cancer patients is crucial.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Curcumin Cur , a natural product, exerts promising anticancer activities against various cancer types. However, its therapeutic efficacy is hindered as a result of poor water solubility, instability, and low bioavailability.
The aim of this work is to assess the curative effect of a novel nanoformulation, i. The adsorption behaviors of the rare earth metal ions onto freeze-dried powders of genetically engineered microbial strains were compared. The order was the same as the order of the phosphorus quantity of the strains. This result indicates that the main adsorption sites for the ions are the phosphate groups and the teichoic acids, LTA and WTA, that contribute to the adsorption of the rare earth metal ions onto the cell walls.
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The shapes of the cells will play an important role in the sedimentation of the microbial powders with rare earth metal ions. As the results, three kinds of the genetically engineered microbial powders revealed unique adsorption behaviors of the rare earth metal ions. Due to the predictable conformation and programmable Watson—Crick base-pairing interactions, DNA has proven to be an attractive material to construct various nanostructures.
The system consists of only two hairpins, an initiator and a DNA polymerase. Upon addition of aptamer-linked initiator, the inert stems of the two hairpins are activated alternately under the direction of DNA polymerase, which thus grows into aptamer-tethered DNA nanoassemblies AptNAs.
Moreover, through incorporating fluorophores and drug-loading sites into the AptNAs, we have constructed multifunctional DNA nanoassemblies for targeted cancer therapy with high drug payloads and good biocompatibility.
Interestingly, using the as-prepared AptNAs as building blocks, DNA nanohydrogels are self-assembled after centrifugation driven by liquid crystallization and dense packaging of DNA duplexes. Taking advantage of easy preparation and high loading capacity, the PDHAs are readily extended to the fabrication of a label-free biosensing platform, achieving amplified electrochemical detection of microRNA miR with a detection limit as low as 0.
This biosensor also demonstrates excellent specificity to discriminate the target miR from the control microRNAs and even the one-base mismatched one and further performs well in analyzing miR in MCF-7 tumor cells.
We report a general and facile method that permits the transfer stacking of multiple independently fabricated and nanoscopically thin polymeric films, each containing a distinct bioactive agent, onto soft biomedically relevant surfaces e. By using polyelectrolyte multilayer films PEMs formed from poly allyl amine hydrochloride and poly acrylic acid as representative polymeric nanofilms and micrometer-thick water-soluble poly vinyl alcohol sacrificial films to stack the PEMs, we demonstrate that it is possible to create stacked polymeric constructs containing multiple bioactive agents e.
DNA nanostrucures are promising materials for biomedical applications. Typically, the presence of target cell promoted the formation of hairpin structure of aptamer, and then the aptamer-accompanied DNA tetrahedron would release from the supporter. Unlike the aptamer only labeled with photosensitizer, the DNA nanodevice showed the capability to promote cellular internalization of anticancer agents, increase drug loading capacity, and realize synergetic therapy, which enhanced the destructive ability of anticancer agents.
A nanocomposite of poly lactide-co-glycolide PLGA and hydroxyapatite HA with a different grafting ratio of l-lactic acid oligomer op-HA showed better interface compatibility, mineralization, and osteogenetic abilities. However, surface modification of the composite is crucial to improve the osteointegration for bone regeneration.
In this study, a biomimetic process via poly dopamine coating was utilized to prepare functional substrate surfaces with immobilized bioactive peptides that efficiently regulate the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1.
Our study demonstrated that incorporation of collagen mimetic peptide significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. The immobilization of osteogenic growth peptide induced the osteodifferentiation of cells, as indicated by the alkaline phosphate activity test, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunofluorescence staining. The mineralization on the peptide-modified substrates was also enhanced greatly.
In conclusion, the surface modification strategy with bioactive peptides shows potential to enhance the osteointegration of bone implants. Surface patterning provides a powerful tool to the diagnosis of platelet adhesion. However, the current methodologies of constructing platelet-patterned surfaces require laborious and complicated steps. The platelet-repellent effect was significantly better than that of poly ethylene glycol PEG in a long-term.
Moreover, the platelet-repellent behavior could extend to other polyphenols-functionalized surfaces.
ACS Applied Materials Interfaces : Nanopatterned Graphene on a Polymer Substrate by a Direct...
On the basis of these observations, a TA-based micropattern was fabricated in situ by one-step microcontact printing for well-defined platelet adhesion, which can effectively avoid the traditional introduction of inert hydrophilic polymers and bioactive ligands.
Afterward, the TA-based micropattern was applied to monitor the adhesion of defective platelets treated with an antiplatelet drug tirofiban. This work provided a facile, versatile, and environmentally friendly strategy to construct platelet-repellent polyphenolic surfaces and their micropattern.
We expect that this simple micropattern could act as a low-cost and label-free platform for biomaterials and biosensors, and could be widely used in the clinical diagnoses of platelet adhesive functions and the evaluation of antiplatelet therapies. Halloysite nanotubes HNTs are natural aluminosilicates with unique hollow lumen structure, also having high specific area, good biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and low price.
Therefore, the rational designed HNTs nanocarrier for chemotherapy drug showed promising applications in tumor treatment. Biomimicking hydrogel-based cell culture platforms with physiologically relevant stiffness are powerful tools to modulate the behaviors of stem cells. Herein, the use of fibronectin-conjugated polyacrylamide PAA hydrogel biointerface is exploited to modulate the intracellular oxidative stress of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells MSCs.
We show that compliant culture surface with kPa range matrix stiffness can augment the expression level of reactive oxygen species ROS in MSCs by approximately 2—4 fold compared with cells grown on conventional FN coated glass control surface in a noncytotoxic manner.
Importantly, the secretome harvested from the cells that were grown on the PAA hydrogel was found to enhance wound healing in both in vitro and in vivo full thickness mouse excisional wound model.
Thus, such unstable electrochemical distributions have the severe potential to disrupt electrochemical dependent cellular processes, such as glucose cotransporters.
Hence, a detailed investigation of pH changing effects and glucose uptake inhibition are warranted as a possible cesium-induced anticancer therapy.
Our investigations suggest that neither NanoCs nor CsCl drastically changed the intracellular pH, negating the theory. Alternatively, NanoCs lead to a significant decrease in glucose uptake when compared to free CsCl, suggesting cesium inhibited glucose uptake.
An apoptosis assay of observed cell death affirms that NanoCs leads tumor cells to initiate apoptosis rather than follow necrotic behavior. Thus, NanoCs performed pH-independent anticancer therapy by inducing metabolic stasis. Clinical development of siRNA has been hindered by the lack of an effective delivery system.
Here, we report the construction of a novel siRNA delivery system, sTOLP, which is based on cell penetrating peptide oleoyl-octaarginine OA-R8 modified multifunctional lipid nanoparticles. Leucine aminopeptidase LAP , one of the important proteolytic enzymes, is intertwined with the progress of many pathological disorders as a well-defined biomarker.
Its ratiometric NIR signal can be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by bestatin, an LAP inhibitor, indicating that the alteration of endogenous LAP activity results in these obviously fluorescent signal responses.
Impressively, not only did we successfully exemplify DCM—Leu in situ ratiometric trapping and quantification of endogenous LAP activity in various types of living cells, but also, with the aid of three-dimensional confocal imaging, the intracellular LAP distribution is clearly observed from different perspectives for the first time, owing to the high signal-to-noise of ratiometric NIR fluorescent response.
Collectively, these results demonstrate preclinical potential value of DCM—Leu serving as a useful NIR fluorescent probe for early detection of LAP-associated disease and screening inhibitor.
Traditional photodynamic therapy PDT requires external light to activate photosensitizers for therapeutic purposes. However, the limited tissue penetration of light is still a major challenge for this method.
To overcome this limitation, we report an optimized system that uses Cerenkov radiation for PDT by using radionuclides to activate a well-known photosensitizer chlorin e6, Ce6. In vitro cell viability experiments demonstrated dose-dependent cell deconstruction as a function of the concentration of Ce6 and 89Zr.