Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives , by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis , but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept.
A beekeeper or apiarist keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce including beeswax , propolis , flower pollen , bee pollen , and royal jelly , to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard". Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 10, years ago.
It wasn't until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the movable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony.
At some point humans began to attempt to maintain colonies of wild bees in artificial hives made from hollow logs, wooden boxes, pottery vessels, and woven straw baskets or " skeps ".
Honeybees were kept in Egypt from antiquity. Bees that collect honey, which none of my ancestors had ever seen or brought into the land of Suhu, I brought down from the mountain of the men of Habha, and made them settle in the orchards of the town 'Gabbari-built-it'. They collect honey and wax, and I know how to melt the honey and wax — and the gardeners know too. In prehistoric Greece Crete and Mycenae , there existed a system of high-status apiculture, as can be concluded from the finds of hives, smoking pots, honey extractors and other beekeeping paraphernalia in Knossos.
Beekeeping was considered a highly valued industry controlled by beekeeping overseers—owners of gold rings depicting apiculture scenes rather than religious ones as they have been reinterpreted recently, contra Sir Arthur Evans. Archaeological finds relating to beekeeping have been discovered at Rehov , a Bronze and Iron Age archaeological site in the Jordan Valley , Israel. The hives were found in orderly rows, three high, in a manner that could have accommodated around hives, held more than 1 million bees and had a potential annual yield of kilograms of honey and 70 kilograms of beeswax, according to Mazar, and are evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in ancient Israel 3, years ago.
In ancient Greece , aspects of the lives of bees and beekeeping are discussed at length by Aristotle.
Beekeeping has also been practiced in ancient China since antiquity. In the book "Golden Rules of Business Success" written by Fan Li or Tao Zhu Gong during the Spring and Autumn period there are sections describing the art of beekeeping, stressing the importance of the quality of the wooden box used and how this can affect the quality of the honey.
Tocharian B mit , cognate with English mead. The ancient Maya domesticated a separate species of stingless bee. The use of stingless bees is referred to as meliponiculture, named after bees of the tribe Meliponini —such as Melipona quadrifasciata in Brazil.
This variation of bee keeping still occurs around the world today. It was not until the 18th century that European natural philosophers undertook the scientific study of bee colonies and began to understand the complex and hidden world of bee biology.
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research
He observed queens laying eggs in open cells, but still had no idea of how a queen was fertilized; nobody had ever witnessed the mating of a queen and drone and many theories held that queens were " self-fertile ," while others believed that a vapor or "miasma" emanating from the drones fertilized queens without direct physical contact.
Huber was the first to prove by observation and experiment that queens are physically inseminated by drones outside the confines of hives, usually a great distance away. This allowed inspecting individual wax combs and greatly improved direct observation of hive activity. Huber confirmed that a hive consists of one queen who is the mother of all the female workers and male drones in the colony. He was also the first to confirm that mating with drones takes place outside of hives and that queens are inseminated by a number of successive matings with male drones, high in the air at a great distance from their hive.
Together, he and Burnens dissected bees under the microscope and were among the first to describe the ovaries and spermatheca , or sperm store, of queens as well as the penis of male drones. Huber is universally regarded as "the father of modern bee-science" and his "Nouvelles Observations sur Les Abeilles or "New Observations on Bees"  revealed all the basic scientific truths for the biology and ecology of honeybees.
Ethiopia's apiculture and huge honey production potential need to look for modern techniques
Early forms of honey collecting entailed the destruction of the entire colony when the honey was harvested. The liquid honey from the destroyed brood nest was strained through a sieve or basket.
This was destructive and unhygienic, but for hunter-gatherer societies this did not matter, since the honey was generally consumed immediately and there were always more wild colonies to exploit. But in settled societies the destruction of the bee colony meant the loss of a valuable resource; this drawback made beekeeping both inefficient and something of a "stop and start" activity.
There could be no continuity of production and no possibility of selective breeding, since each bee colony was destroyed at harvest time, along with its precious queen. During the medieval period abbeys and monasteries were centers of beekeeping, since beeswax was highly prized for candles and fermented honey was used to make alcoholic mead in areas of Europe where vines would not grow. The 18th and 19th centuries saw successive stages of a revolution in beekeeping, which allowed the bees themselves to be preserved when taking the harvest.
Wildman also described  a further development, using hives with "sliding frames" for the bees to build their comb, foreshadowing more modern uses of movable-comb hives. The oldest testimony on their use dates back to although it is probable that their use is more than years old.
The 19th century saw this revolution in beekeeping practice completed through the perfection of the movable comb hive by the American Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth. Langstroth was the first person to make practical use of Huber's earlier discovery that there was a specific spatial measurement between the wax combs, later called the bee space , which bees do not block with wax, but keep as a free passage.
This enables the beekeeper to slide any frame out of the hive for inspection, without harming the bees or the comb, protecting the eggs, larvae and pupae contained within the cells. It also meant that combs containing honey could be gently removed and the honey extracted without destroying the comb. The emptied honey combs could then be returned to the bees intact for refilling.
BEEKEEPING PROJECT REPORT
Langstroth's book, The Hive and Honey-bee , published in , described his rediscovery of the bee space and the development of his patent movable comb hive.
The invention and development of the movable-comb-hive fostered the growth of commercial honey production on a large scale in both Europe and the US see also Beekeeping in the United States.
Langstroth's design for movable comb hives was seized upon by apiarists and inventors on both sides of the Atlantic and a wide range of moveable comb hives were designed and perfected in England , France , Germany and the United States. Classic designs evolved in each country: Dadant hives and Langstroth hives are still dominant in the US; in France the De-Layens trough-hive became popular and in the UK a British National hive became standard as late as the s although in Scotland the smaller Smith hive is still popular.
In some Scandinavian countries and in Russia the traditional trough hive persisted until late in the 20th century and is still kept in some areas.
However, the Langstroth and Dadant designs remain ubiquitous in the US and also in many parts of Europe, though Sweden , Denmark , Germany, France and Italy all have their own national hive designs. Regional variations of hive evolved to reflect the climate, floral productivity and the reproductive characteristics of the various subspecies of native honey bee in each bio-region.
The differences in hive dimensions are insignificant in comparison to the common factors in all these hives: they are all square or rectangular; they all use movable wooden frames; they all consist of a floor, brood-box, honey super , crown-board and roof.
Apiculture in ethiopia pdf file
Hives have traditionally been constructed of cedar , pine, or cypress wood, but in recent years hives made from injection molded dense polystyrene have become increasingly important. Hives also use queen excluders between the brood-box and honey supers to keep the queen from laying eggs in cells next to those containing honey intended for consumption.
Also, with the advent in the 20th century of mite pests, hive floors are often replaced for part of or the whole year with a wire mesh and removable tray. In the Flow Hive system was invented in Australia by Cedar Anderson and his father Stuart Anderson  , allowing honey to be extracted without expensive centrifuge equipment.
The 19th century produced an explosion of innovators and inventors who perfected the design and production of beehives, systems of management and husbandry, stock improvement by selective breeding , honey extraction and marketing.
People and Bees in Ethiopia
Preeminent among these innovators were:. Petro Prokopovych used frames with channels in the side of the woodwork; these were packed side by side in boxes that were stacked one on top of the other. The bees traveled from frame to frame and box to box via the channels.
The channels were similar to the cut outs in the sides of modern wooden sections  All modern beehives are descendants of his design.
Langstroth revered as the "father of American apiculture"; no other individual has influenced modern beekeeping practice more than Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth. His classic book The Hive and Honey-bee was published in He invented the Bee smoker in Root pioneered the manufacture of hives and the distribution of bee-packages in the United States.
Miller was one of the first entrepreneurs to actually make a living from apiculture. By he made beekeeping his sole business activity.
His book, Fifty Years Among the Bees , remains a classic and his influence on bee management persists to this day. Franz Hruschka was an Italian military officer who made one crucial invention that catalyzed the commercial honey industry.
In he invented a simple machine for extracting honey from the comb by means of centrifugal force. His original idea was simply to support combs in a metal framework and then spin them around within a container to collect honey as it was thrown out by centrifugal force.
This meant that honeycombs could be returned to a hive undamaged but empty, saving the bees a vast amount of work, time, and materials. This single invention greatly improved the efficiency of honey harvesting and catalysed the modern honey industry.
Walter T. Kelley was an American pioneer of modern beekeeping in the early and midth century. He greatly improved upon beekeeping equipment and clothing and went on to manufacture these items as well as other equipment.
In the U. Manley , author of many titles, including Honey Production in the British Isles and inventor of the Manley frame, still universally popular in the U. Ahmed Zaky Abushady — , was an Egyptian poet, medical doctor, bacteriologist and bee scientist who was active in England and in Egypt in the early part of the twentieth century. In , Abushady patented a removable, standardized aluminum honeycomb. Betts and later by Dr. Eva Crane. Its archives are held in the National Library of Wales.
In India, R. Mattoo was the pioneer worker in starting beekeeping with Indian honeybee, Apis cerana indica in the early s. Beekeeping with European honeybee, Apis mellifera was started by Dr. Atwal and his team members, O. Sharma and N. Goyal in Punjab in the early s.
It remained confined to Punjab and Himachal Pradesh up to the late s.
Later on in , Dr. Sihag, working at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Haryana , introduced and established this honeybee in Haryana and standardized its management practices for semi-arid-subtropical climates.
On the basis of these practices, beekeeping with this honeybee could be extended to the rest of the country. Now beekeeping with Apis mellifera predominates in India. A fixed comb hive is a hive in which the combs cannot be removed or manipulated for management or harvesting without permanently damaging the comb.
Almost any hollow structure can be used for this purpose, such as a log gum , skep , wooden box, or a clay pot or tube. Fixed comb hives are no longer in common use in industrialized countries, and are illegal in places that require movable combs to inspect for problems such as varroa and American foulbrood. In many developing countries fixed comb hives are widely used and, because they can be made from any locally available material. Beekeeping using fixed comb hives is an essential part of the livelihoods of many communities in poor countries.