Altamira Cave Paintings Ppt To Pdf

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

Cave paintings are a type of parietal art which category also includes petroglyphs , or engravings , found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin , but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings certainly predate 28, years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago.

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The oldest known cave paintings are more than 44, years old art of the Upper Paleolithic , found in both the Franco-Cantabrian region in western Europe, and in the caves in the district of Maros Sulawesi , Indonesia. The oldest type of cave paintings are hand stencils and simple geometric shapes; the oldest undisputed examples of figurative cave paintings are somewhat younger, close to 35, years old.

Nearly caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. Initially, the age of the paintings had been a contentious issue, since methods like radiocarbon dating can produce misleading results if contaminated by samples of older or newer material, [7] and caves and rocky overhangs where parietal art is found are typically littered with debris from many time periods.

But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, torch marks on the walls, [8] or the formation of carbonate deposits on top of the paintings. It has been dated using the uranium-thorium method [9] to older than 64, years and was made by a Neanderthal. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France.

The radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet: 35, years ago and 30, years ago. One of the surprises was that many of the paintings were modified repeatedly over thousands of years, possibly explaining the confusion about finer paintings that seemed to date earlier than cruder ones.

In , cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, stylistically comparable to those at Chauvet. In Australia, cave paintings have been found on the Arnhem Land plateau showing megafauna which are thought to have been extinct for over 40, years, making this site another candidate for oldest known painting; however, the proposed age is dependent on the estimate of the extinction of the species seemingly depicted.

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

Other examples may date as late as the Early Bronze Age, but the well-known Magdalenian style seen at Lascaux in France c. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of several thousands of years.

The next phase of surviving European prehistoric painting, the rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin , was very different, concentrating on large assemblies of smaller and much less detailed figures, with at least as many humans as animals. This was created roughly between 10, and 5, years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, in contrast to the recesses of deep caves used in the earlier and much colder period. Although individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree.

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

The most common subjects in cave paintings are large wild animals, such as bison , horses , aurochs , and deer , and tracings of human hands as well as abstract patterns, called finger flutings. The species found most often were suitable for hunting by humans, but were not necessarily the actual typical prey found in associated deposits of bones; for example, the painters of Lascaux have mainly left reindeer bones, but this species does not appear at all in the cave paintings, where equine species are the most common.

Drawings of humans were rare and are usually schematic as opposed to the more detailed and naturalistic images of animal subjects. Kieran D.

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

O'Hara, geologist, suggests in his book Cave Art and Climate Change that climate controlled the themes depicted. Sometimes the silhouette of the animal was incised in the rock first, and in some caves all or many of the images are only engraved in this fashion, taking them somewhat out of a strict definition of "cave painting".

Similarly, large animals are also the most common subjects in the many small carved and engraved bone or ivory less often stone pieces dating from the same periods. But these include the group of Venus figurines , which have no real equivalent in cave paintings. Hand stencils, made by placing a hand on the wall and blowing pigment at it probably through a pipe of some kind , form a characteristic image of a roughly round area of solid pigment with the uncoloured shape of the hand in the centre, which may then be decorated with lines or dashes.

Altamira Cave Paintings

Often, these are found in the same caves as other paintings, or may be the only form of painting in a location. Some walls contain many hand stencils. Similar hands are also painted in the usual fashion. A number of hands show a finger wholly or partly missing, for which a number of explanations have been given. Henri Breuil interpreted the paintings as hunting magic to increase the abundance of prey.

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Another theory, developed by David Lewis-Williams and broadly based on ethnographic studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies, is that the paintings were made by paleolithic shamans.

Dale Guthrie, who has studied both highly artistic and lower quality art and figurines, identifies a wide range of skill and age among the artists.

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He hypothesizes that the main themes in the paintings and other artifacts powerful beasts, risky hunting scenes and the representation of women in the Venus figurines are the work of adolescent males, who constituted a large part of the human population at the time.

Rock painting was also performed on cliff faces; but fewer of those have survived because of erosion. When Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola first encountered the Magdalenian paintings of the Cave of Altamira in Cantabria, Spain in , the academics of the time considered them hoaxes.

Recent reappraisals and numerous additional discoveries have since demonstrated their authenticity, while at the same time stimulating interest in the artistry and symbolism [26] of Upper Palaeolithic peoples. Originating in the Paleolithic period, the rock art found in Khoit Tsenkher Cave , Mongolia, includes symbols and animal forms painted from the walls up to the ceiling.

The paintings appear brown or red in color, and are stylistically similar to other Paleolithic rock art from around the world but are unlike any other examples in Mongolia. In Indonesia the caves in the district of Maros in Sulawesi are famous for their hand prints.

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

About 1, negative handprints have also been found in 30 painted caves in the Sangkulirang area of Kalimantan; preliminary dating analysis as of put their age in the range of 10, years old. A painting of a babirusa was dated to at least The Padah-Lin Caves of Burma contain 11,year-old paintings and many rock tools. The Bhimbetka rock shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India.

THE CAVE ART

Paintings in Bhimbetka are dated to about 8, BCE. In Odisha they are found in Yogimatha and Gudahandi. In Karnataka, these paintings are found in Hiregudda near Badami. The most recent painting, consisting of geometric figures, date to the medieval period. Executed mainly in red and white with the occasional use of green and yellow, the paintings depict the lives and times of the people who lived in the caves, including scenes of childbirth, communal dancing and drinking, religious rites and burials, as well as indigenous animals.

The Art of Altamira Cave

Cave paintings found at the Apollo 11 Cave in Namibia are estimated to date from approximately 25,—27, years ago. After extensive testing for seven years, it was revealed that the lines drawn on the rock were handmade and from an ochre crayon dating back 73, years. This makes it the oldest known rock painting. Significant early cave paintings, executed in ochre , have been found in Kakadu , Australia.

The Bird Men of Altamira

Ochre is not an organic material , so carbon dating of these pictures is often impossible. Sometimes the approximate date, or at least, an epoch , can be surmised from the painting content, contextual artifacts, or organic material intentionally or inadvertently mixed with the inorganic ochre paint, including torch soot.

A red ochre painting, discovered at the centre of the Arnhem Land Plateau , depicts two emu -like birds with their necks outstretched. They have been identified by a palaeontologist as depicting the megafauna species Genyornis , giant birds thought to have become extinct more than 40, years ago; however, this evidence is inconclusive for dating.

It may suggest that Genyornis became extinct at a later date than previously determined. Hook Island in the Whitsunday Islands is also home to a number of cave paintings created by the seafaring Ngaro people. The following sections present notable examples of prehistorc cave art dated to after the end of the Upper Paleolithic to the Holocene , after c.

Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain

In the Philippines at Tabon Caves the oldest artwork may be a relief of a shark above the cave entrance. It was partially disfigured by a later jar burial scene. In , a French archaeological team discovered the Laas Geel cave paintings on the outskirts of Hargeisa in the northwestern region of Somaliland. Dating back around 5, years, the paintings depict both wild animals and decorated cows.

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They also feature herders, who are believed to be the creators of the rock art. Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in Karinhegane is a site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2, years old.

In Djibouti , rock art of what appear to be antelopes and a giraffe are also found at Dorra and Balho. Many cave paintings are found in the Tassili n'Ajjer mountains in southeast Algeria.

Altamira cave paintings ppt to pdf

A UNESCO World Heritage Site , the rock art was first discovered in and has since yielded 15, engravings and drawings that keep a record of the various animal migrations, climatic shifts, and change in human inhabitation patterns in this part of the Sahara from BCE to the late classical period.

The site contains rock painting images of people swimming, which are estimated to have been created 10, years ago during the time of the most recent Ice Age. Human figures are much more common in the rock art of Africa than in Europe. Distinctive monochrome and polychrome cave paintings and murals exist in the mid-peninsula regions of southern Baja California and northern Baja California Sur , consisting of Pre-Columbian paintings of humans, land animals, sea creatures, and abstract designs.

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These paintings are mostly confined to the sierras of this region, but can also be found in outlying mesas and rock shelters. According to recent radiocarbon studies of the area, of materials recovered from archaeological deposits in the rock shelters and on materials in the paintings themselves, suggest that the Great Murals may have a time range extending as far back as 7, years ago.

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Cave art that is 6, years old was found in the Cumberland Plateau region of Tennessee. Serra da Capivara National Park is a national park in the north east of Brazil with many prehistoric paintings; the park was created to protect the prehistoric artifacts and paintings found there. It became a World Heritage Site in Its best known archaeological site is Pedra Furada.

Cave of Altamira

It has an area of The area has the largest concentration of prehistoric small farms on the American continents. Scientific studies confirm that the Capivara mountain range was densely populated in prehistoric periods. Moreno National Park , which includes many sites of archaeological and paleontological importance.

The hand images are often negative stencilled. Besides these there are also depictions of human beings, guanacos , rheas , felines and other animals, as well as geometric shapes, zigzag patterns, representations of the sun, and hunting scenes.

Cave painting

Similar paintings, though in smaller numbers, can be found in nearby caves. There are also red dots on the ceilings, probably made by submerging their hunting bolas in ink, and then throwing them up. The colours of the paintings vary from red made from hematite to white, black or yellow.

Chauvet cave: Preserving prehistoric art - BBC News

The negative hand impressions date to around BCE, the positive impressions from BCE, while the hunting drawings are calculated to more than 10, years old. There are rock paintings in caves in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Burma. The anthropologist Ivor Hugh Norman Evans visited Malaysia in the early s and found that some of the tribes especially Negritos were still producing cave paintings and had added depictions of modern objects including what are believed to be automobiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Paintings, often prehistoric, on cave walls and ceilings. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December Further information: Paleolithic art.

See also: Caves in Cantabria.