A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system often shortened to belt conveyor. A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys sometimes referred to as drums , with an endless loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them.
Conveyor Belt Calculations
One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such as grain , salt , coal , ore , sand , overburden and more.
Conveyors are durable and reliable components used in automated distribution and warehousing, as well as manufacturing and production facilities. In combination with computer-controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more efficient retail , wholesale , and manufacturing distribution. It is considered a labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a process, allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense.
Belt conveyors are the most commonly used powered conveyors because they are the most versatile and the least expensive .
Products are conveyed directly on the belt so both regular and irregular shaped objects, large or small, light and heavy, can be transported successfully. Belt conveyors are also manufactured with curved sections which use tapered rollers and curved belting to convey products around a corner. These conveyor systems are commonly used in postal sorting offices and airport baggage handling systems.
Conveyor Belts Hnat At The Airport
Belt conveyors are generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal frame with rollers at either end of a flat metal bed.
Rubber conveyor belts are commonly used to convey items with irregular bottom surfaces, small items that would fall in between rollers e. The belt is looped around each of the rollers and when one of the rollers is powered by an electrical motor the belting slides across the solid metal frame bed, moving the product. In heavy use applications the beds which the belting is pulled over are replaced with rollers.
The rollers allow weight to be conveyed as they reduce the amount of friction generated from the heavier loading on the belting. The exception to the standard belt conveyor construction is the Sandwich Belt conveyor. The Sandwich Belt conveyor uses two conveyor belts, instead of one.
These two conventional conveyor belts are positioned face to face, to firmly contain the items being carried in a "sandwich-like" hold.
An Example of Conveyor Belt Calculations
Belt conveyors can be used to transport product in a straight line or through changes in elevation or direction. The trough of the belt ensures that the flowable material is contained within the edges of the belt. The trough is achieved by keeping the idler rollers in an angle to the horizontal at the sides of the idler frame.
A Pipe Conveyor is used for material travel paths that require sharper bends and inclines up to 35 degrees. However, in this case the idler frame completely surrounds the conveyor belt helping it to retain the pipe section, while pushing it forward. In the case of travel paths requiring high angles and snake-like curvatures, a Sandwich Belt is used.
The sandwich belt design enables materials carried to travel along a path of high inclines up to 90 degree angles  , enabling a vertical path as opposed to a horizontal one. This transport option is also powered by idlers. Other important components of the Belt Conveying System apart from the Pulleys and Idler rollers include the Drive Arrangement of reducer Gear Boxes, Drive motors and associated couplings.
Scrapers to clean the belt, Chutes for controlling the discharge direction, Skirts for containing the discharge on the receiving belt, Take Up assembly for "tensioning" the belt and Technological Structures like Stringer, Short Post, Drive Frames, Pulley Frames make up the balance items to complete the Belt Conveying system. In certain applications Belt Conveyors can also be used for static accumulation or cartons. Belt conveyor systems at a Packing Depot. Baggage Handling Belt Conveyor systems.
Belt conveyor from an open-pit lignite mine in Bavaria. Primitive conveyor belts were used since the 19th century. In , Thomas Robins began a series of inventions which led to the development of a conveyor belt used for carrying coal, ores and other products.
In Richard Sutcliffe invented the first conveyor belts for use in coal mines which revolutionized the mining industry. Hyacynthe Marcel Bocchetti was the concept designer. In , the B. Incorporating a half-twist, it had the advantage over conventional belts of a longer life because it could expose all of its surface area to wear and tear. The belt consists of one or more layers of material. It is common for belts to have three layers: a top cover, a carcass and a bottom cover.
The purpose of the carcass is to provide linear strength and shape. The warp refers to longitudinal cords whose characteristics of resistance and elasticity define the running properties of the belt. The weft represents the whole set of transversal cables allowing to the belt specific resistance against cuts, tears and impacts and at the same time high flexibility.
The most common carcass materials are steel , polyester , nylon , cotton and aramid class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers, with Twaron or Kevlar as brand names. The covers are usually various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt.
Steel conveyor belts are used when high strength class is required. For example, the highest strength class conveyor belt installed is made of steel cords. This conveyor belt has a strength class of The advantages of using aramid are energy savings, enhanced lifetimes and improved productivity. Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been created for conveying different kinds of material available in PVC and rubber materials.
Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a beltweigher. Belts with regularly spaced partitions, known as elevator belts , are used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines. Belt Conveyors are used in self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks.
Belt conveyor technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalks or escalators , as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. Stores often have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items.
Ski areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill. Industrial and manufacturing applications for belt conveyors include package handling, trough belt conveyors, trash handling, bag handling, coding conveyors, and more.
The longest belt conveyor system in the world is in Western Sahara. It was installed by Siemens and commissioned in , and has a combination of traditional belt conveyors and tray conveyors.
Boddington Bauxite Mine in Western Australia is officially recognized as having the world's longest single flight conveyor.
Single flight means the load is not transferred, it is a single continuous systems for the entire length. Cable belt conveyors are a variation on the more convention idler belt system.
Instead of running on top of idlers, cable belt conveyors are supported by two endless steel cables steel wire rope which are in turn supported by idler pulley wheels.
This system feeds bauxite through the difficult terrain of the Darling Ranges to the Worsley Alumina refinery. The second longest single trough belt conveyor is the It was design by Conveyor Dynamics, Inc.
The conveyor transports tph of coal from a mine to a refinery that converts the coal to diesel fuel. Conveyor Dynamics, Inc.
Detail engineering and Construction was completed by Laing O'Rourke. The longest single-belt international conveyor runs from Meghalaya in India to a cement factory at Chhatak Bangladesh.
The conveyor is actuated by three synchronized drive units for a total power of about 1. The idlers, or rollers, of the system are unique [ citation needed ] in that they are designed to accommodate both horizontal and vertical curves along the terrain. Conveyors used in industrial settings include tripping mechanisms such as trip cords along the length of the conveyor.
This allows for workers to immediately shut down the conveyor when a problem arises.
Warning alarms are included to notify employees that a conveyor is about to turn on. Some other systems used to safeguard the conveyor are belt sway switches, speed switches, belt rip switch, and emergency stops. The belt sway switch will stop the conveyor if the belt starts losing its alignment along the structure.
The speed switch will stop the belt if the switch is not registering that the belt is running at the required speed.
The belt rip switch will stop the belt when there is a cut, or a flap indicating that the belt is in danger of further damage. An emergency stop may be located on the conveyor control box in case of trip chord malfunctions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about industrial conveyor belts.
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The specific problem is: Overview is unencyclopedic "highest quality premium belting products" and needs proofreading, also diagram is not of a conveyor belt. Please help improve this article if you can. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Conveyors: Application, Selection, and Integration. CRC Press.
Airport conveyor belt design manual
The New York Times. November 5, Archived from the original on December 25, Retrieved Thomas Robins, founder and former chairman of the board of the Hewitt-Robins Company here, died today in the Nestledown Convalescent Home after an illness of several months, His age was He invented the heavy-duty belt conveyor.